Chaining Builds in Azure DevOps

We are triggering a lot of builds in Azure DevOps these days. If anyone so much as looks at an AL file we start a new build.

OK, that’s a small exaggeration, but we do use our build pipelines for:

  • Continuous integration i.e. whenever code is pushed up to Azure DevOps we start a build
  • Verifying our apps compile and run against different localisations (more of that another time)
  • Checking that a dependent app hasn’t been broken by some changes (what we’re going to talk about now)
  • Building our app against different upcoming versions of Business Central (this is an idea that we haven’t implemented yet)

Background Reading

If you haven’t got a clue what I’m talking about you might find a little background reading useful. These might get you started:


We’re considering a similar problem to the one I wrote about in the last post on package management – but from the other end. The question then was, “how do I fetch packages (apps) that my app depends on?” Although not explicitly stated, a benefit of the package management approach is that you’ll find out pretty quickly if there are any breaking changes in the dependency that you must handle in your app.

Obviously, you want to minimise the number of times you make a breaking change in the first place but if you can’t avoid it then change the major version no. and do your best to let any dependent devs know how it will affect them e.g. if you’re going to change how an API works, give people some notice…I’m looking at you Microsoft 😉

But what if we’re developing the dependency and not the dependent app? There will be no trigger to build the dependent app and check that it still works.

Chaining Builds

Azure DevOps allows you to trigger a new build on completion of another build. In our scenario we’ve got two apps that are built from two separate Git repositories in the same Azure DevOps project. One is dependent upon the other.

It doesn’t really matter for the purposes of this post what the apps do or why they are split into two but, for the curious, the dependent app provides a little slice of extra functionality for on-prem customers that cannot be supported for SaaS. Consequently the dependency (which has the core functionality supported both for SaaS and on-prem) is developed far more frequently than the dependent app.

Build Triggers.JPG

We want to check that when we push changes to the dependency that the dependent app still works i.e. it compiles, publishes, installs and the tests still run.

You can add a “Build Completion” trigger to pipeline for the dependent app. This defines that when the dependency app is built (filtered by branch) that a build for the dependency kicks off.

That way if we’ve inadvertently made some breaking change we gives ourselves a chance to catch it before our customers do.


Currently the triggering and to-be-triggered build pipelines must be in the same Azure DevOps project – which is a shame. I’d love to be able to trigger builds across different projects in the same organisation. No doubt this would be possible to achieve through the API – maybe I’ll attempt it some day – but I’d rather this was supported in the UI.

An Approach to Package Management in Dynamics 365 Business Central


We use PowerShell to call the Azure DevOps API and retrieve Build Artefacts from the last successful build of the repository/repositories that we’re dependent on.


Over the last few years I’ve moved into a role where I’m managing a development team more than I’m writing code myself. I’ve spent a lot of that time looking at tools and practices in the broader software development community. After all, whether you’re writing C/AL, AL, PowerShell or JavaScript it’s all code and it’s unlikely that we’ll face any challenges that haven’t already been faced in one way or another in a different setting.

In that time we’ve introduced:

Package Management

The next thing to talk about is package management. I’ve written about the benefits of trying to avoid dependencies between your apps before (see here). However, if app A relies on app B and you cannot foresee ever deploying A without B then you have a dependency. There is no point trying to code your way round the problems that avoiding the dependency will create.

Accepting that your app has one or more dependencies – and most of our apps have at least one – opens up a bunch of questions and presents some interesting challenges.

Most obviously you need to know, where can I get the .app files for the apps that I am dependent on? Is it at least the minimum version required by my app? Is this the correct app for the version of the Dynamics NAV / Dynamics 365 Business Central that I am developing against? Are the apps that I depend on themselves dependent on other apps? If so, where do I get those from? Is there another layer of dependencies below that? Is it really turtles all the way down?

These are the sorts of questions that you don’t want to have to worry about when you are setting up an environment to develop in. Docker gives us a slick way to quickly create disposable development and testing environments. We don’t want to burn all the time that Docker saves us searching for, publishing and installing app files before we can start work.

This is what a package manager is for. The developer just needs to declare what their app depends on and leave the package manager to retrieve and install the appropriate packages.

The Goal

Why are we talking about this? What are we trying to achieve?

We want to keep the maintenance of all apps separate. When writing app A I shouldn’t need to know or care about the development of app B beyond my use of its API. I just need to know:

  • The minimum version that includes the functionality that I need – this will go into my app.json file
  • I can acquire that, or a later, version of the app from somewhere as and when I need it

I want to be able to specify my dependencies and with the minimum of fuss download and install those apps into my Docker container.

We’ve got a PowerShell command to do just that.

Get-ALDependencies -Container BCOnPrem -Install

There are a few jigsaw pieces we need to gather before we can start putting it all together.

Locating the Apps

We need somewhere to store the latest version of the apps that we might depend upon. There is usually some central, public repository where the packages are hosted – think of the PowerShell Gallery or Docker Hub for example.

We don’t have an equivalent repository for AL apps. AppSource performs that function for Business Central SaaS but that’s not much use to us while we are developing or if the apps we need aren’t on AppSource. We’re going to need to set something up ourselves.

You could just use a network folder. Or maybe SharePoint. Or some custom web service that you created. Our choice is Azure DevOps build artefacts. For a few reasons:

  • We’ve already got all of our AL code going through build pipelines anyway. The build creates the .app files, digitally signs them and stores them as build artefacts
  • The artefacts are only stored if all the tests ran successfully which ought to give us more confidence relying on them
  • The build automatically increments the app version so it should always be clear which version of the app is later and we shouldn’t get caught in app version purgatory when upgrading an app that we’re dependent on
  • We’re already making use of Azure DevOp’s REST API for loads of other stuff – it was easy to add some commands to retrieve the build artefacts (hence my earlier post on getting started with the API)

Identifying the Repository

There is a challenge here. In the app.json file we identify dependencies by app name, id and publisher. To find a build – and its artefacts – we need to know the project and repository name in Azure DevOps.

Seeing as we can’t add extra details into the app.json file itself we hold these details in a separate json file – environment.json. This file can have an array of dependency objects with a:

  • name – which should match the name of the dependency in the app.json file
  • project – the Azure DevOps project to to find this app in
  • repo – the Git repository in that project to find this app in

Once we know the right repository we can use the Azure DevOps API to find the most recent successful build and download its artefacts.

I’m aware that we could use Azure DevOps to create proper releases, rather than downloading apps that are still in development. We probably should – maybe I’ll come back and update this post some day. For now, we find that using the artefacts from builds is fine for the two main purposes we use them: creating local development environments and creating a Docker container as part of a build. We have a separate, manual process for uploading new released versions to SharePoint for now.

The Code

So much for the theory, let’s look at some code. In brief we:

  1. Read app.json and iterate through the dependencies
  2. For each dependency, find the corresponding entry in the environment.json file and read the project and repo for that dependency
  3. Download the app from the last successful build for that repo
  4. Acquire the app.json of the dependency
  5. Repeat steps 2-5 recursively for each branch of the dependency tree
  6. Optionally publish and install the apps that have been found (starting at the bottom of the tree and working up)

A few notes about the code:

  • It’s not all here – particularly the definition of Invoke-TFSAPI. That is just a wrapper for the Invoke-WebRequest command which adds the authentication headers (as previously described)
  • These functions are split across different files and grouped into a module, I’ve bundled them into a single file here for ease

(The PowerShell is hosted here if you can’t see it embedded below:

VS Code, PowerShell & Git: 5 Things

Visual Studio Code has moved quickly from “what’s that? Part of Visual Studio? No? Then why did they call it that?” to become the hub of much of my daily work. This post contains a few of the things (5 to be precise) that I’ve done to make it work better for me. Maybe you can glean something useful. Maybe you can teach me something about how you use it – post a comment.


You can use VS Code to write JavaScript, C#, CSS, HTML and a raft of other languages, use its native support for Git and install extensions for AL (obviously), developing Azure Functions, integrating with Azure DevOps, managing Docker, writing Power Shell, adding support for TFVC…


Having said that, I’m not a big fan of having lots of extensions that I only occasionally use. I’m pretty ruthless in uninstalling stuff I’m not using in Chrome and Android. VS Code is the same. If I don’t use it all the time I generally go without it. (For those of us that make apps for a living it’s a sobering thought that our prospective users are likely to be the same).

Right now I’ve got these extensions installed:

  • AL Language – every so often I need an upcoming version or a NAV 2018 version but most of the time I’ve got the one from the marketplace installed
  • Azure Account – provides some sign in magic required by other extensions
  • Azure Functions – like it sounds
  • Azure Pipelines – intellisense for YAML build definitions
  • CRS AL Language Extensions – for renaming AL files to follow best practices and because I don’t like the convention. Including the object type when the files are already in subfolders by object type and including objects IDs when we all agree we want to get rid of them and don’t care what they are as long as they’re unique seems pretty redundant to me…but I digress
  • GitLens – add blame annotations i.e. “how did this line of code get here”, file history, compare revisions, open the file in Azure DevOps
  • PowerShell – like it sounds
  • Night Owl – a theme. Because we can! Having suffered for years with an IDE that didn’t even highlight keywords I took my time trying out different themes. I like a dark theme but didn’t quite get on with the one that comes with VS Code.


VS Code has a built in terminal. I use PowerShell a lot during the day to manage containers (with the navcontainerhelper module), manage Git and various tasks with our own module to call the with Azure DevOps REST API. It’s nice to also be able to do all that from within VS Code.

These ideas aren’t strictly to do with VS Code, but tweaking PowerShell and Git to make them more efficient for you.

Run as Administrator

If you’re going to use the terminal to manage docker containers you’re going to want to run VS Code (and therefore the terminal) as administrator.

You can set this in the Advanced section of the properties of the shortcut. This will force VS Code to always open as admin.

VS Code Shortcut Properties.JPG

I believe Freddy K is working on some changes to the navcontainerhelper module that will remove the requirement to run the cmdlets as admin. That would be nice.

PowerShell Profile

Have PowerShell automatically execute some script on loading by editing your profile. PowerShell has a built-in $profile variable which points to the location of your .ps1 profile file.

I use that file to import the posh-git module (below) and our own TFS Tools module. You could create the file with something like this (sc is an alias for the Set-Content command):

sc $profile 'Import-Module posh-git
Write-Host "PowerShell Ready" -ForegroundColor Green'

Opening a new terminal will look like this:

VS Code Terminal PowerShell Ready.JPG

Note: PowerShell ISE has a different profile file to PowerShell.


I mostly use Git from the command line. I started using the command line rather than a GUI as I found it helped me understand what commands are actually being used – how fetch is different to pull, how to set tracking information for a branch or edit a remote.

And yes, perhaps there is small part of it that boosts my shallow sense of “I’m a real developer, I type weird commands into a prompt rather than clicking a button on a GUI”. It’s OK to admit that. I draw the line at Vim though.


If you’re planning on using Git in PowerShell you’re going to want to install the posh-git module.

Install-Module posh-git

It adds some details into the prompt (see above): the branch that you are on, how it compares to the remote branch that it is tracking and the status of your index. It adds tab completion all over the place as well – indispensable.

Git Aliases

If you do start using Git from the terminal you’re probably going to find typing some of the longer commands quite tedious. For instance, git log –graph is great to get an overview of your project and has loads of switches to alter its output. I tend to use:

git log --graph --oneline --all

To show a graph of all the branches (remote as well as local) with commit details on a single line each.

Git Log Graph Oneline.JPG

It gets you something like the above. You can see the commits that each of the branches is pointing at, which branches commits are included in and how work has been merged over time.

I don’t want to type the full command out each time though. Fortunately, Git doesn’t force you to. You can create an alias. I have:

  • git lol – to show the above graph
  • git fap – to fetch all changes from the remote and prune any references to remote branches that no longer exist (I’ve never understood why Git doesn’t automatically remove references to remote branches that no longer exist)
  • git pff – pull and merge changes from the remote branch, as long as your branch can be fast-forwarded


There are lots of opportunities – more than 5 – to enhance and tune VS Code and PowerShell to make your daily work more efficient. Check it out.

Source Code Management: Conclusions

I stated in the first post in this series that I wasn’t going to offer any advice. I will, however, attempt to draw some conclusions from our experiences and hope that you’ll find them helpful, or at least interesting.

(Not) Migrating to Git

A few months before we trialled Git in earnest as a team I tried it out for myself. I had a look because I’d heard various reasons that we should migrate:

  • “It’s faster” – yes, in my experience all the key operations are faster in Git than TFVC (committing vs. checking-in, cloning vs. getting latest version, viewing differences between versions)
    • Is that a compelling reason in itself to migrate? You can be the judge of that
  • “Microsoft are moving to it themselves” – who cares? Do you have the same requirements as Microsoft?
    • This would only be a valid argument if they stopped supporting TFVC. As far as I can see they are adding support for more version control systems not removing them (the Build system can now retrieve code from Subversion)
  • “VS Code has built in support for Git” – true, which is great.
    • You can add support for TFVC through a VS Code extension published by Microsoft
    • Again, you can decide how important the convenience of having support for Git in your IDE is weighed against other factors
    • Having tried a few GUIs for Git, VS Code is not my personal favourite – Git Extensions is

I decided at the time that we didn’t need to migrate to Git. The benefits didn’t outweigh the challenges in having the team learn a new system and migrate to it in my estimation. This was during the days of us developing in a central NAV development database (more on that here).

Moving to a distributed version control system while we were working in a single development database didn’t seem to make a lot of sense and I figured that our development practice should drive our choice of version control – not the other way round.

Migrating to Git

All of that said, now that we have migrated to Git I can’t imagine going back to TFVC. Some of our key experiences and learning points:

  • Git has a steeper learning curve. Getting your head round cloning the entire repository, how branches work, pushing, fetching and pulling changes – it’s all a little more involved than TFVC
  • It’s worth investing the time to understand the core concepts. I watched many hours of YouTube videos about Git and read lots of blogs – you can use Git as centralised version control (by pushing to the remote every time you commit) but you’re missing most of the power if you do
  • Personally, I forced myself to use the command line rather than a GUI for common tasks – this helped me grasp what the commands were actually doing and how they can be manipulated in different situations. That knowledge will come in handy when someone in your team asks why their rebase has resulted in a conflict and how to fix it
  • We create a lot of branches now, because it’s so easy and because we use pull requests (see below)
  • Git gives you much finer control over the repositories and your commits than TFVC: interactive rebasing, resetting, reverting, cherry-picking, squashing, fixing, amending commits – with a little practice and research (see above) there aren’t really any ways to screw up the repository so badly that you can’t clean it up again
  • The complexity that makes Git harder to get started with also makes it very flexible and powerful
  • Did I mention that pull requests are awesome? The tools to collaborate on code in Azure DevOps have revolutionised our development workflow. We got started with code review in TFVC but moving to Git has allowed us to move on to another level

At the End of the Day

At the end of the day, source code management is a tool to help us turn out working software for our customers. Different dev teams use different systems in different ways. That’s because they have different development practices and procedures.

However, I think it’s fair to say that we’ve found source code management is not a substitute for good process. Implementing it was initially difficult because we weren’t following a consistent, disciplined development process. It was clear that we weren’t going to be able to extract much value from our system until we were.

As we have changed, and sought to improve our process over the years we have changed our system to suit, which feels like the right way round to me.

Source Code Management: Migrating to Git

This is the third post in a series about source code management. You can start here if you haven’t read the others in the series.

There we were, happy as the proverbial Larry, checking our code into TFVC, requesting code reviews, branching, merging, viewing file history, comparing versions, annotating and writing a lot of PowerShell to automate tasks with the VSTS API. We were feeling pretty great about our source code management.

What could possibly induce us to move away from this system?

Developer Isolation

Our standard practice had always been for developers to work in the same development database. We rarely needed to have multiple developers working on the same project at the same time or not on the same objects at least.

As we invested in our products and grew the team we found ourselves overlapping a lot more than had been the case with customer specific development. Dynamics NAV isn’t equipped to handle this particularly well:

  • If two developers have the same object open at the same time, both make changes and then save, whoever saves last wins. There is potential for development to be lost as soon as it has been written
  • NAV does allow you to lock objects – sort of like checking them out in source code management – but we weren’t in the habit of doing it. We wouldn’t consistently lock them when we were working on them or unlock them when we had finished working on them
    • Hardly a fair criticism of NAV you might say – we just didn’t have a discipline for using the lock functionality properly. You may well be right
    • Even so, locking an object prevents anyone else from designing it. What is the point of me carefully splitting some development into discrete tasks so that different developers can work on them in parallel if they are going to trip over each other because they happen to be modifying the same objects?
  • Only one developer can debug on a service tier at any time
    • So add more service tiers to the development server. You could, but it was already becoming a headache trying to manage all the development databases and service tiers that we’d got on our dev server. I didn’t fancy throwing any more fuel on that particular fire
  • When you export the objects from NAV to check-in to source code management you increase the likelihood that mistakes will be made
    • I export objects that I’ve changed which may include changes that you’ve made. If I’m not careful then I’ll check-in your changes as part of my changeset
    • That can be complicated to fix and then merge into another branch. Or I’ll have to revert the changeset and have a redundant pair of changesets etched into the history of the project

The solution to all of these problems was to isolate the developers from each other. We’d each create a local development environment where we could work, test and debug safe in the knowledge that no one else is monkeying with the objects.

We invested time in PowerShell scripts to automate the creation and management of these environments. Once again, the VSTS API and tf.exe were our friends. As a side benefit we’d also limited our reliance on our development server and the single point of failure danger that it had posed.

Life was good again. We could work on separate features and share the code through shelvesets and code review before checking-in. We could create a new environment of a given product for development or testing in a few minutes with our automation.


Once we’d isolated developers I was more confident defining separate tasks for different developers to work on in parallel. So I did, but as we were still sharing the same branch in TFVC we started to run into a different set of problems.

  • What if the same developer wanted to work on multiple work items at the same time?
    • This was particularly true when they’d finish the first work item and put it in for review. While they were waiting for review they’d want to crack on with the next task
    • Managing their local development environment became difficult – when they start the second task ideally they should work in a database that doesn’t include the changes from the first task
    • Creating an environment per work item – while feasible – isn’t very attractive.
  • Having several code reviews open against the same branch becomes difficult to follow.
    • While we’d try to review and give feedback/approve as quickly as possible there are inevitably some that stick around for a while
    • The reviewing developer wants an environment with the latest stable code and the code under review. When there is an update to the code under review the shelveset must be replaced and downloaded and applied to the database again (a challenge in TFVC in general)

A sensible step to take is to introduce a branch per work item in TFVC. This allows unrelated changes to be isolated from each other and merged into a production branch once the code has been reviewed. I wasn’t thrilled at this prospect.

Branching in TFVC is expensive – in the sense that it is a full copy of the folder that is has been branched from. Even if you’ve got an entire branch downloaded into your workspace when you create another branch from it the new branch is created on the server and you must download it separately. If you want to delete the branch – which we’d want to do once the work item was finished – you need to download the entire branch, then delete your local folder to tell the server to delete the branch.

I now know that we’d stumbled over two of the most compelling reasons to use Git rather than TFVC (Or other distributed version control systems – but as we were already using VSTS Git was the natural alternative).

In Git:

  • Isolated developers are a given. Everyone has their own copy of the whole repository
  • Branching is cheap and easy. So cheap and easy that you are encouraged to do it all the time. It is very simple to isolate changes from each other and merge them back together again at a later date


It is beyond the scope of this post to compare TFVC and Git in any depth – although there will be more in the final post – but these are the key points that led us to trial it and ultimately move all our code to Git repositories.

  • Now that we were working in separate NAV databases our source code was effectively distributed among us – as opposed to centralised in a single development database.
    • This fits the ethos of Git (as a distributed version control system) much better than TFVC (as a centralised version control system)
    • Without realising it at the time we had effectively already moved to distributed version control
  • Git maintains a single working directory with the contents of the current branch – as opposed to a separate folder with a copy of all objects per branch
    • This principle is what makes branching so cheap in Git. Creating a new branch requires no more than the creation of a single text file with a pointer to the contents of that branch
    • This is a far more attractive proposition when it comes to maintaining your local development database. Don’t create a database per branch or confuse yourself trying to work in multiple branches on the same database. Instead create a single database whose objects are updated to reflect the current contents of Git’s working directory (see below). PowerShell
  • Code is shared through branches which are pushed to the central repository
    • Rather than through shelvesets which are necessarily a single, self-contained set of changes which are difficult to update and re-share.
    • Code reviews (pull requests) compare the changes between two branches rather than the changes contained in a single shelveset. I am constantly delighted with the power of this concept and the tools that Azure DevOps (VSTS) provides to support it. Perhaps more of that in another post one day. Pull requests are awesome

Synchronising with Git’s Working Directory

The most important jigsaw piece in our puzzle of adopting Git was to find a smooth way to keep the NAV database and Git’s working directory in sync with one another. If not, we were going to see some unexpected differences when exporting from NAV.

PowerShell came to the rescue and I added a bunch of functions to the module that we develop and use internally. We also use some functions from Cloud Ready Software’s modules – mainly their wrappers for standard functions that make them a little easier to call by just supplying the NAV service tier. The main functions are:

  • Build-DevEnvironmentFromGit – to create the NAV database and service tier. I won’t go into the details of how that works now. Typically we’d do this once per product as we’re going to reuse the same database from now on rather than constantly building and deleting them
  • Start-GitDev – to start the NAV service tier and import the NAV PowerShell modules from the correct build
  • Export-ModifiedObjectsToWorkingTree
    • Export objects (Modified = true) from the NAV database to individual text files in the Git directory
    • Set Modified to false and DateTime to 1st January of the current year (to minimise conflicts on the DateTime)
  • Apply-CommitsToServiceTier (-Top / -Since) – find top X commits or commits since a point in the log and apply (using Apply-CommitToServiceTier) them to the service tier
  • Apply-CommitToServiceTier – identify the objects modified by this commit and import to / delete from the NAV database as appropriate
  • Checkout-GitBranch
    • Pop a list of branches (including remote) using Out-GridView for the developer to select the target branch
    • Identify the objects that are different between the current branch/commit and the branch/commit to checkout. Import to / delete from the NAV database as appropriate

Using an appropriate combination of the above we can always keep the NAV database and the Git working directory in sync. This provides some really powerful flexibility:

  • If I want to test the code someone is including in a pull request I can just checkout that remote branch and test in my local database. I can then easily switch back to what I was doing on my own branch
  • I can create as many local branches as I like for separate tasks and easily flick between them knowing that the NAV database doesn’t have any unrelated changes hanging around

Dynamics 365 Business Central

A lot of the above has now been rendered obsolete with Dynamics 365 Business Central as we are moving away from working with NAV databases.

The learning curve has, however, been invaluable as we continue to rely heavily on Git and Azure DevOps in our development of v2 apps for Business Central.

We’ll wrap up this series with some concluding thoughts in the next post.